Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) from Köhler’s Medicinal Vegetation, 1897

Tea plant

Tea is an aromatic beverage steadily prepared by pouring sizzling or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to East Asia.[3] After water, it is essentially the most broadly consumed drink on this planet.[4] There are many various forms of tea; some, love Darjeeling and Chinese greens, possess a cooling, quite of bitter, and astringent flavour,[5] whereas others possess vastly various profiles that encompass candy, nutty, floral or grassy notes. Tea has a stimulating conclude in humans primarily ensuing from its caffeine tell.[6]

Tea originated within the sphere encompassing this present day’s north Burma and southwestern China, the assign it became pale as a medicinal drink by various ethnic groups within the sphere.[7] An early credible file of tea drinking dates to the third century AD, in a clinical textual tell written by Hua Tuo.[8] It became popularised as a recreational drink at some level of the Chinese Tang dynasty, and tea drinking unfold to various East Asian nations. Portuguese monks and retailers introduced it to Europe at some level of the 16th century.[9] All the device by the 17th century, drinking tea grew to modified into standard among the many English, who started neat-scale production and commercialisation of the plant in India. Blended, China and India supplied 62% of the realm’s tea in 2016.

The length of time herbal tea refers to drinks now not fabricated from Camellia sinensis: infusions of fruit, leaves, or various facets of the plant, equivalent to steeps of rosehip, chamomile, or rooibos. These are every so often[10] known as tisanes or herbal infusions to extinguish confusion with tea fabricated from the tea plant.


Wuyi tea plantation in Wuyi Mountains, Fujian, China

The Chinese persona for tea is , before all the pieces written with an extra stroke as (pronounced , pale as a note for a bitter herb), and acquired its present bear at some level of the Tang Dynasty.[11][12][13] The note is pronounced otherwise within the many forms of Chinese, equivalent to chá in Mandarin, zo and dzo in Wu Chinese, and ta and te in Min Chinese.[14] One suggestion is that the many pronunciations could perhaps furthermore possess arisen from the many phrases for tea in veteran China, let’s train (荼) could perhaps furthermore possess given rise to ;[15] historical phonologists however argued that the cha, te and dzo all arose from the identical root with a reconstructed pronunciation dra, which modified ensuing from sound shift by the centuries.[16] There possess been various veteran phrases for tea, despite the reality that ming () is basically the most efficient various one restful in overall enlighten.[16][17] It has been proposed that the Chinese phrases for tea, tu, cha and ming, could perhaps furthermore possess been borrowed from the Austro-Asiatic languages of those that inhabited southwest China; cha let’s train could perhaps furthermore possess been derived from an broken-down Austro-Asiatic root *la, meaning “leaf” (“” in Vietnamese or “hla?” in Khmu).[18]

Tea plantation in Assam, India

Most Chinese languages, equivalent to Mandarin and Cantonese, divulge it along the traces of cha, but Hokkien and Teochew Chinese forms along the Southern float of China divulge it love teh. These two pronunciations possess made their separate ways into various languages all the device by the realm.[19]

Starting within the early 17th century, the Dutch performed a dominant role within the early European tea exchange by the Dutch East India Company.[20] The Dutch borrowed the note for “tea” (thee) from Min Chinese, both by exchange straight from Hokkien speakers in Formosa the assign they’d established a port, or from Malay merchants in Bantam, Java.[21] The Dutch then introduced to various European languages this Min pronunciation for tea, in conjunction with English tea, French thé, Spanish , and German Tee.[22] This pronunciation is furthermore essentially the most overall bear worldwide.[23] The Cha pronunciation came from the Cantonese chàh of Guangzhou (Canton), especially by Portuguese merchants who settled Macau within the 16th century. The Portuguese adopted the Cantonese pronunciation “chá”, and unfold it to India.[21] Alternatively, the Korean and Eastern pronunciations of cha weren’t from Cantonese, but were borrowed into Korean and Eastern at some level of earlier sessions of Chinese historical past.

A third bear, the an increasing form of frequent chai, came from Persian چای [tʃɒːi] chay. Each and each the châ and chây forms are learned in Persian dictionaries.[24] They’re derived from the Northern Chinese pronunciation of chá,[25] which passed overland to Central Asia and Persia, the assign it picked up the Persian grammatical suffix -yi before passing on to Russian as чай ([tɕæj], chay), Arabic as شاي (pronounced shay [ʃæiː] ensuing from the inability of a /t͡ʃ/ sound in Arabic), Urdu as چائے chay, Hindi as चाय chāy, Turkish as çay, and lots others.[26] English has all three forms: cha or char (each pronounced /ɑː/), attested from the 16th century; tea, from the 17th; and chai, from the 20th. Alternatively, the bear chai this present day refers specifically to a sad tea mixed with sugar or honey, spices and milk.[27]

The few exceptions of phrases for tea that attain now not fall into the three tall groups of te, cha and chai are languages from the botanical house of origin of the tea plant, from which the Chinese phrases for tea could perhaps furthermore need been borrowed before all the pieces: [16] northeast Myanmar (beforehand Burma) and southwest Yunnan. Examples are la (meaning tea purchased in various locations) and miiem (wild tea gathered within the hills) from the Wa people, laphet (လက်ဖက်) within the Burmese language, and meng in Lamet meaning “fermented tea leaves”, besides to miang (เมี่ยง) within the Northern Thai language (“fermented tea”).

Foundation and historical past

Botanical origin

Tea vegetation are native to East Asia, and presumably originated within the borderlands of north Burma and southwestern China.[28]

  • Chinese (diminutive leaf) tea
  • Chinese Western Yunnan Assam (neat leaf) tea
    • Indian Assam (neat leaf) tea
  • Chinese Southern Yunnan Assam (neat leaf) tea

Chinese (diminutive leaf) form tea (C. sinensis var. sinensis) could perhaps furthermore possess originated in southern China presumably with hybridization of unknown wild tea family. Alternatively, since there are no identified wild populations of this tea, the actual quandary of its origin is speculative.[29][30]

Given their genetic variations forming clear clades, Chinese Assam form tea (C. sinensis var. assamica) could perhaps furthermore possess two various parentages – one being learned in southern Yunnan (Xishuangbanna, Pu’er City) and the many in western Yunnan (Lincang, Baoshan). Many forms of Southern Yunnan assam tea possess been hybridized with the closely linked species Camellia taliensis. Not like Southern Yunnan Assam tea, Western Yunnan Assam tea shares many genetic similarities with Indian Assam form tea (furthermore C. sinensis var. assamica). Thus, Western Yunnan Assam tea and Indian Assam tea each could perhaps furthermore possess originated from the identical guardian plant within the house the assign southwestern China, Indo-Burma, and Tibet meet. Alternatively, because the Indian Assam tea shares no haplotypes with Western Yunnan Assam tea, Indian Assam tea is doubtless to possess originated from an independent domestication. Some Indian Assam tea seems to possess hybridized with the species Camellia pubicosta.[29][30]

Assuming a generation of 12 years, Chinese diminutive leaf tea is estimated to possess diverged from Assam tea spherical 22,000 years ago whereas Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea diverged 2,800 years ago. The divergence of Chinese diminutive leaf tea and Assam tea would correspond to the closing glacial most.[29][30]

Early tea drinking

A 19th-century Eastern painting depicting Shennong: Chinese legends credit Shennong with the invention of tea.[31]

Tea drinking could perhaps furthermore possess begun within the sphere of Yunnan field, when it became pale for medicinal functions. It is furthermore believed that in Sichuan, “people started to boil tea leaves for consumption into a concentrated liquid without the addition of various leaves or herbs, thereby the enlighten of tea as a bitter but stimulating drink, quite than as a medicinal concoction.”[7]

Chinese legends attribute the invention of tea to the mythical Shennong (in central and northerly China) in 2737 BC despite the reality that proof suggests that tea drinking could perhaps furthermore possess been introduced from the southwest of China (Sichuan/Yunnan house).[31] The earliest written records of tea procedure from China. The note seems within the Shijing and various veteran texts to signify a extra or less “bitter vegetable” (苦菜), and it is possible that it referred to many various vegetation equivalent to sowthistle, chicory, or smartweed,[32] besides to tea.[16] Within the Chronicles of Huayang, it became recorded that the Ba people in Sichuan presented tu to the Zhou king. The Qin later conquered the direct of Ba and its neighbour Shu, and in accordance with the 17th century pupil Gu Yanwu who wrote in Ri Zhi Lu (日知錄): “It became after the Qin had taken Shu that they learned easy salvage out how to drink tea.”[2] Yet any other possible early reference to tea is learned in a letter written by the Qin Dynasty overall Liu Kun who requested that some “true tea” to be sent to him.[33]

The earliest identified physical proof[34] of tea became learned in 2016 within the mausoleum of Emperor Jing of Han in Xi’an, indicating that tea from the genus Camellia became inebriated by Han Dynasty emperors as early because the 2nd century BC.[35] The Han dynasty work, “The Contract for a Formative years”, written by Wang Bao in 59 BC,[36] contains the first identified reference to boiling tea. Among the many responsibilities listed to be undertaken by the formative years, the contract states that “he shall boil tea and have the utensils” and “he shall dangle tea at Wuyang”.[2] The predominant file of tea cultivation is furthermore dated to this length (the reign of Emperor Xuan of Han), at some level of which tea became cultivated on Meng Mountain (蒙山) near Chengdu.[37] Yet any other early credible file of tea drinking dates to the third century AD, in a clinical textual tell by Hua Tuo, who stated, “to drink bitter t’u continuously makes one think better.”[38] Alternatively, before the mid-eighth century Tang dynasty, tea-drinking became primarily a southern Chinese educate[39] whereas the principle drink in northern China became yogurt. Tea became disdained by the Northern dynasties aristocrats of the Central Plains, who scream it as a “slaves’ drink”, injurious to yogurt.[40][41] It grew to modified into broadly current at some level of the Tang Dynasty, when it became unfold to Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. The Classic of Tea, a treatise on tea and its preparations, became written by Lu Yu in 762.


By device of the centuries, a diversity of how for processing tea, and a replacement of various forms of tea, were developed. All the device by the Tang dynasty, tea became steamed, then pounded and fashioned into cake bear,[42] whereas within the Song dynasty, loose-leaf tea became developed and grew to modified into current. All the device by the Yuan and Ming dynasties, unoxidized tea leaves were first pan-fried, then rolled and dried, a direction of that stops the oxidation direction of that turns the leaves unlit, thereby allowing tea to remain inexperienced. Within the 15th century, oolong tea, by which the leaves were allowed to in part oxidize before pan-frying, became developed.[39] Western tastes, however, favoured the fully oxidized sad tea, and the leaves were allowed to oxidize extra. Yellow tea became an accidental discovery within the production of inexperienced tea at some level of the Ming dynasty, when it sounds as if sloppy practices allowed the leaves to flip yellow, but yielded a various flavour for that reason.[43]

Worldwide unfold

Tea-weighing location north of Batumi, Russian Empire before 1915

Tea became first introduced to Western monks and retailers in China at some level of the 16th century, at which time it became termed chá.[9] The earliest European reference to tea, written as Chiai, came from Delle navigationi e viaggi written by a Venetian, Giambattista Ramusio, in 1545.[44] The predominant recorded cargo of tea by a European nation became in 1607 when the Dutch East India Company moved a cargo of tea from Macao to Java, then two years later, the Dutch supplied the first assignment of tea which became from Hirado in Japan to be shipped to Europe.[45] Tea grew to modified into a as much as the moment drink in The Hague within the Netherlands, and the Dutch introduced the drink to Germany, France and all the device by the Atlantic to New Amsterdam (New York).[46]

In 1567, Russian people came eager with tea when the Cossack Atamans Petrov and Yalyshev visited China.[47] In 1638 the Mongolian Khan donated to Tsar Michael I four poods (65–70 kg) of tea.[48] In holding with Jeremiah Curtin,[49] it became presumably in 1636[50] that Vassili Starkov became sent as envoy to the Altyn Khan. As a reward to the Tsar, he became given 250 pounds of tea. Starkov at the beginning refused, seeing no enlighten for a load of boring leaves, however the Khan insisted. Thus became tea introduced to Russia. In 1679, Russia concluded a treaty on regular tea offers from China by camel caravan in exchange for furs. It is this present day belief to be the de facto nationwide beverage.

The predominant file of tea in English came from a letter written by Richard Wickham, who ran an East India Company office in Japan, writing to a merchant in Macao soliciting for “essentially the most efficient form of chaw” in 1615. Peter Mundy, a traveller and merchant who learned tea in Fujian in 1637, wrote, “chaa – most efficient water with a extra or less herb boyled in it “.[51][52] Tea became supplied in a coffee house in London in 1657, Samuel Pepys tasted tea in 1660, and Catherine of Braganza took the tea-drinking behavior to the English court when she married Charles II in 1662. Tea, however, became now not broadly consumed within the British Isles till the 18th century, and remained pricey till the latter phase of that length. English drinkers most smartly-most well liked to add sugar and milk to sad tea, and sad tea overtook inexperienced tea in recognition within the 1720s.[53] Tea smuggling at some level of the 18th century led to most folks being ready to manage to pay for and eat tea. The British government eliminated the tax on tea, thereby taking away the smuggling exchange, by 1785.[54] In Britain and Ireland, tea became at the beginning consumed as a luxury item on special situations, equivalent to spiritual festivals, wakes, and domestic work gatherings. The worth of tea in Europe fell frequently at some level of the 19th century, especially after Indian tea started to procedure in neat quantities; by the dreary 19th century tea had modified into an day after day beverage for all levels of society.[55] The recognition of tea furthermore told a replacement of historical occasions – the Tea Act of 1773 provoked the Boston Tea Event that escalated into the American Revolution. The have to contend with the venture of British exchange deficit ensuing from the exchange in tea resulted within the Opium Wars. The Qing Kangxi Emperor had proclaimed that “China became the heart of the realm, possessing all the pieces they’ll furthermore ever desire or need and banned foreign merchandise from being supplied in China”,[citation needed] decreeing in 1685 “that every person items supplied from China ought to restful be paid for in silver coin or bullion”.[citation needed] Merchants from various nation then sought to search out various product, in this case opium, to promote to China to blueprint abet the silver they were required to paid for tea and various commodities. The following makes an strive by the Chinese Govt to curtail the exchange in opium led to conflict.[56]

Chinese diminutive leaf form tea became introduced into India in 1836 by the British in an strive and break the Chinese monopoly on tea.[57] In 1841, Archibald Campbell brought seeds of Chinese tea from the Kumaun field and experimented with planting tea in Darjeeling. The Alubari tea backyard became opened in 1856 and Darjeeling tea started to be produced.[58] In 1848, Robert Fortune became sent by the East India Company on a mission to China to bid the tea plant abet to Immense Britain. He started his lunge in high secrecy as his mission came about within the lull between the Anglo-Chinese First Opium Battle (1839–1842) and Second Opium Battle (1856–1860).[59] The Chinese tea vegetation he brought abet were introduced to the Himalayas, despite the reality that most didn’t live to scream the tale. The British had learned that a various diversity of tea became endemic to Assam and the northeast field of India and that it became pale by the local Singpho people, and these were then grown rather than the Chinese tea plant and then were subsequently hybridized with Chinese diminutive leaf form tea besides to doubtless closely linked wild tea species. Utilizing the Chinese planting and cultivation ways, the British launched a tea exchange by offering land in Assam to any European who agreed to cultivate it for export.[57] Tea became before all the pieces consumed most efficient by anglicized Indians; however, it grew to modified into broadly current in India within the 1950s ensuing from a a hit promoting marketing campaign by the India Tea Board.[57]

Cultivation and harvesting

Tea plantation workers in Sri Lanka

Camellia sinensis is an evergreen plant that grows mainly in tropical and subtropical climates.[60] Some forms can furthermore tolerate marine climates and are cultivated as far north as Cornwall in England,[61]Perthshire in Scotland,[62]Washington direct within the United States,[63] and Vancouver Island in Canada.[64] Within the Southern Hemisphere, tea is grown as far south as Hobart on the Australian island of Tasmania[65][66] and Waikato in New Zealand.[67]

Tea vegetation are propagated from seed and cuttings; about 4 to 12 years are mandatory for a plant to endure seed and about three years before a current plant is ready for harvesting.[60] As well to a zone 8 local climate or hotter, tea vegetation require now not now not as much as 127 cm (50 in) of rainfall a year and possess acidic soils.[68] Many high of the diversity tea vegetation are cultivated at elevations of as much as 1,500 m (4,900 ft) above sea level. Even though at these heights the vegetation develop extra slowly, they get a better flavour.[69]

Two predominant forms are pale: Camellia sinensis var. sinensis, which is pale for most Chinese, Formosan and Eastern teas, and C. sinensis var. assamica, pale in Pu-erh and most Indian teas (but now not Darjeeling). Interior these botanical forms, many traces and new clonal forms are identified. Leaf size is the executive criterion for the classification of tea vegetation, with three major classifications being,[70]Assam form, characterised by an major leaves; China form, characterised by the smallest leaves; and Cambodian form, characterised by leaves of intermediate size. The Cambod form tea (C. assamica subsp. lasiocaly) became before all the pieces belief to be a form of assam tea. Alternatively, later genetic work confirmed that it is a hybrid between Chinese diminutive leaf tea and assam form tea.[71] Darjeeling tea furthermore appears to be hybrids between Chinese diminutive leaf tea and assam form tea.[72]

A tea plant will develop into a tree of as much as 16 m (52 ft) if left undisturbed,[60] but cultivated vegetation are in overall pruned to waist high for ease of plucking. Furthermore, the short vegetation endure extra current shoots which present current and soft leaves and amplify the typical of the tea.[73]

Simplest the live 2.5–5 centimetres (1–2 in) of the frail plant are picked. These buds and leaves are known as ‘flushes’.[74] A plant will develop a current flush each seven to 15 days at some level of the rising season. Leaves which could perhaps well be dreary in type have a tendency to assemble better-flavoured teas.[60] A complete lot of teas are on the market in from specified flushes; let’s train, Darjeeling tea is on the market as first flush (at a top price set), 2nd flush, monsoon and autumn. Assam 2nd flush or “tippy” tea is believed to be good to first flush, ensuing from the gold pointers that seem on the leaves.

Pests of tea encompass mosquito bugs of the genus Helopeltis (that are honest bugs that mustn’t be stressed with the dipteran) that can tatter leaves, so they’ll furthermore be sprayed with pesticides. As well, there could perhaps furthermore be Lepidopteran leaf feeders and various tea diseases.

Chemical composition

Physically talking, tea has properties of each an answer and a suspension. It’s an answer of the entire water-soluble compounds which were extracted from the tea leaves, such because the polyphenols and amino acids, but is a suspension when the overall insoluble ingredients are belief to be, such because the cellulose within the tea leaves.[75]

Caffeine constitutes about 3% of tea’s dry weight, translating to between 30 and 90 milligrams per 250-millilitre (8 12 US fl oz) cup depending on the form, imprint,[76] and brewing capacity.[77] A look learned that the caffeine tell of 1 gram of sad tea ranged from 22–28 mg, whereas the caffeine tell of 1 gram of inexperienced tea ranged from 11–20 mg, reflecting a major distinction.[78] Tea furthermore contains diminutive amounts of theobromine and theophylline, that are stimulants, and xanthines much like caffeine.[79]

New tea leaves in various stages of roar.

Sunless and inexperienced teas get no major vitamins in major amounts, except for the dietary mineral manganese, at 0.5 mg per cup or 26% of the Reference Everyday Intake (RDI).[80]Fluoride is generally repeat in tea; particular forms of “brick tea”, fabricated from mature leaves and stems, possess the final note levels, ample to pose a health threat if grand tea is inebriated, which has been attributed to high levels of fluoride in soils, acidic soils, and prolonged brewing.[81]

The astringency in tea will also be attributed to the presence of polyphenols. These are essentially the most abundant compounds in tea leaves, making up 30–40% of their composition.[82]
Polyphenols encompass flavonoids, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and various catechins.[83][84]

It has been instructed that inexperienced and sad tea could perhaps furthermore defend towards most cancers[85] or various diseases equivalent to obesity[86] or Alzheimer’s illness,[87] however the compounds learned in inexperienced tea have not been conclusively demonstrated to possess any conclude on human diseases.[88][89]

Processing and classification

Teas of various levels of oxidation (L to R): inexperienced, yellow, oolong, and sad

Tea is steadily divided into categories primarily based completely on how it is processed.[90] No longer now not as much as six various forms are produced:

  • White: wilted and unoxidized;
  • Yellow: unwilted and unoxidized but allowed to yellow;
  • Green: unwilted and unoxidized;
  • Oolong: wilted, bruised, and in part oxidized;
  • Sunless: wilted, every so often beaten, and fully oxidized (known as 紅茶 [hóngchá], “crimson tea” in Chinese and various East Asian tea custom);
  • Put up-fermented (Sunless): inexperienced tea that has been allowed to ferment/compost (known as 黑茶 [hēichá] “sad tea” in Chinese tea custom).

After picking, the leaves of C. sinensis soon originate to wilt and oxidize except without extend dried. An enzymatic oxidation direction of triggered by the plant’s intracellular enzymes causes the leaves to flip progressively darker as their chlorophyll breaks down and tannins are launched. This darkening is stopped at a predetermined stage by heating, which deactivates the enzymes to blame. Within the production of sad teas, halting by heating is performed concurrently with drying. With out cautious moisture and temperature administration at some level of bear and packaging, roar of undesired molds and micro organism could perhaps furthermore make tea unfit for consumption.

Extra processing and additives

Traditional processing strategies of tea leaves

After frequent processing, teas could perhaps furthermore be altered by extra processing steps before being supplied,[91] and is steadily consumed with additions to the elemental tea leaf and water added at some level of preparation or drinking. Examples of extra processing steps that occur before tea is accessible are blending, flavouring, scenting, and decaffeination of teas. Examples of additives added at the level of consumption encompass milk, sugar and lemon.


Tea blending is the combination of various teas collectively to enact the closing product. Fair about all tea in bags and most loose tea supplied within the West is blended.[citation needed] Such teas could perhaps furthermore mix others from the identical cultivation house or several various ones. The honest is to invent consistency, better type, increased set, or some combination of the three.


Flavoured and scented teas add current aromas and flavours to the sinful tea. This can also be accomplished by straight adding flavouring brokers, equivalent to ginger or dried ginger, cloves, mint leaves, cardamom, bergamot (learned in Earl Grey), vanilla, and spearmint. Alternatively, ensuing from tea without difficulty retains odours, it would also be placed in proximity to an aromatic ingredient to absorb its aroma, as in pale jasmine tea.[92][unreliable source?]


Sunless tea is steadily serious about milk

The addition of milk to tea in Europe became first talked about in 1680 by the epistolist Madame de Sévigné.[93] Many teas are historically inebriated with milk in cultures the assign dairy merchandise are consumed. These encompass Indian masala chai and British tea blends. These teas are usually very hearty forms of sad tea that can also be tasted by the milk, equivalent to Assams, or the East Friesian mix. Milk is believed to neutralise remaining tannins and decrease acidity.[94][95] The Han Chinese attain now not generally drink milk with tea however the Manchus attain, and the elite of the Qing Dynasty of the Chinese Empire persevered to attain so. Hong Kong-type milk tea is primarily based completely on British colonial habits. Tibetans and various Himalayan peoples historically drink tea with milk or yak butter and salt. In Eastern European nations, Russia and Italy, tea is steadily served with lemon juice. In Poland, tea is historically served with a gash of lemon and is sweetened with both sugar or honey; tea with milk is named a bawarka (“Bavarian type”) in Polish and is furthermore broadly current.[96] In Australia, tea with milk is identified as white tea.

The account for of steps in making ready a cup of tea is a grand-debated topic, and could perhaps furthermore differ broadly between cultures and even people. Some train it is preferable to add the milk to the cup before the tea, because the sizzling temperature of freshly brewed tea can denature the proteins learned in original milk, much just like the alternate in type of UHT milk, ensuing in an injurious-tasting beverage.[97] Others dispute it is better to add the milk to the cup after the tea, as sad tea is steadily brewed as shut to boiling as possible. The addition of milk chills the beverage at some level of the mandatory brewing portion, if brewing in a cup quite than the enlighten of a pot, meaning the fragile flavour of a factual tea can’t be fully liked. By adding the milk afterwards, it is less complicated to dissolve sugar within the tea and furthermore to verify the specified quantity of milk is added, because the colour of the tea will also be seen.[98] Historically, the account for of steps became taken as an illustration of class: most efficient those prosperous ample to manage to pay for factual-quality porcelain could perhaps well be assured of its being ready to contend with being uncovered to boiling water unadulterated with milk.[99] Higher temperature distinction capacity sooner heat switch, so the earlier milk is added, the slower the drink cools. A 2007 glance published within the European Coronary heart Journal learned particular sensible effects of tea could perhaps furthermore be lost by the addition of milk.[100]


Sunless tea

Traditional forms of sad tea encompass Assam, Nepal, Darjeeling, Nilgiri, Rize, Keemun, and Ceylon teas. Western sad teas are generally brewed for approximately four minutes. In a complete lot of regions of the realm, actively boiling water is pale and the tea is steadily stewed. In India, sad tea is steadily boiled for fifteen minutes or longer to make Masala chai, as a solid brew is most smartly-most well liked. Tea is steadily strained whereas serving.

A meals safety administration crew of the Worldwide Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published a mature for making ready a cup of tea (ISO 3103: Tea – Preparation of liquor to be used in sensory assessments), primarily intended for standardizing preparation for comparability and rating functions. It is printed as 2.0 grams of tea leaves steeped for 6 minutes per 100 ml of boiling water.

Green tea

In regions of the realm that possess soft drinks, such because the A ways East, inexperienced tea is steeped in water spherical 80 to 85 °C (176 to 185 °F). Regions equivalent to North Africa or Central Asia possess a bitter tea, and hotter water is pale. In Morocco, inexperienced tea is steeped in boiling water for 15 minutes.

The container by which inexperienced tea is steeped is steadily warmed beforehand to extinguish premature cooling. High of the diversity inexperienced and white teas can possess current water added as many as 5 or extra situations, depending on diversity, at an increasing form of increased temperatures.

Oolong tea

Oolong tea is brewed spherical 82 to 96 °C (185 to 205 °F), with the brewing vessel warmed before pouring the water. Yixing crimson clay teapots are the pale brewing-vessel for oolong tea that can also be brewed a pair of situations from the identical leaves, unlike inexperienced tea, seeming to toughen with reuse. Within the southern Chinese and Taiwanese Gongfu tea ceremony, the first brew is discarded, as it is belief to be a rinse of leaves quite than a honest brew.

Pu-erh tea

Pu-erh teas require boiling water for infusion. Some possess to speedy rinse pu-erh for several seconds with boiling water to defend tea mud which accumulates from the ageing direction of, then infuse it at the boiling level (100 °C or 212 °F), and permit it to steep from 30 seconds to 5 minutes.

Masala chai

Which implies “spiced tea”, masala chai tea is ready the enlighten of sad or inexperienced tea with milk (by which case it’ll furthermore be known as a “latte“), and could perhaps furthermore be spiced with ginger.[101]

Tandoor tea

In present situations, there has been a pattern in India for Tandoor tea. This tea is ready by inserting the tea in crimson sizzling tandoor (fire oven) and then pouring the sizzling milky preparation when it is boiling.[102]

Chilly brew tea

Whereas most tea is ready the enlighten of sizzling water, it is furthermore possible to brew a beverage from tea the enlighten of room temperature or cooled water. This requires longer steeping time to extract the major ingredients, and produces a various flavour profile. Chilly brews enlighten about 1.5 situations the tea leaves that would perhaps be pale for decent steeping, and are refrigerated for 4–10 hours. The procedure of constructing chilly brew tea is grand extra glorious than that for chilly brew coffee.

Chilly brewing has some disadvantages when in contrast with sizzling steeping. If the leaves or source water get undesirable micro organism, they’ll furthermore flourish, whereas the enlighten of sizzling water has the serve of killing most micro organism. That is less of a venture nowa days and developed regions. Chilly brewing could perhaps furthermore furthermore permit for less caffeine to be extracted.

Pouring from high

The flavour of tea can furthermore be altered by pouring it from various heights, ensuing in various degrees of aeration. The art of elevated pouring is pale basically to toughen the flavour of the tea and toughen mouthfeel, whereas cooling the beverage sufficiently for quick consumption.[103]

In Southeast Asia, the educate of pouring tea from a high has been sophisticated extra the enlighten of brewed sad tea to which condensed milk is mixed then poured from a high alternately from matching handheld vessels several situations in speedy succession. This creates a tea with entrapped air bubbles and a frothy “head”, which is then without extend served in a cup. This beverage, teh tarik, actually, “pulled tea” (which has its origin as a sizzling Indian tea beverage), has a creamier type than flat milk tea and is overall within the sphere.[104]

Tea custom

Masala chai from India with garnishes

English teaware

Turkish tea served in frequent diminutive glass and corresponding plate

Iced tea with a gash of lemon

Drinking tea is steadily believed to live in accrued alertness[citation needed]; it contains L-theanine, theophylline, and sure caffeine[5] (every so often known as theine). Decaffeinated brands are furthermore supplied. Whereas herbal teas are furthermore known as tea, most of them attain now not get leaves from the tea plant. Whereas tea is the 2nd most consumed beverage on Earth after water, in many cultures it is furthermore consumed at elevated social occasions, such because the tea fetch collectively.

Tea ceremonies possess arisen in various cultures, such because the Chinese and Eastern traditions, each of which employs particular ways and ritualised protocol of brewing and serving tea for enjoyment in a polished setting. One bear of Chinese tea ceremony is the Gongfu tea ceremony, which generally uses diminutive Yixing clay teapots and oolong tea.

Within the UK 63% of parents drink tea day-to-day[105] and is perceived as one in every of Britain’s cultural drinks. It is outdated for a host to produce tea to guests soon after their arrival. Tea is consumed each at house and outdoors the house, generally in cafés or tea rooms. Afternoon tea with muffins on lovely porcelain is a cultural stereotype. In southwest England, many cafés lend a hand a cream tea, consisting of scones, clotted cream, and jam alongside a pot of tea. In some facets of Britain and India ‘tea’ could perhaps furthermore furthermore check with the evening meal.

Ireland, as of 2016, became the 2nd biggest per capita shoppers of tea on this planet.[106] With local blends essentially the most smartly-most well liked in Ireland, in conjunction with Irish breakfast tea, the enlighten of Rwandan, Kenyan and Assam teas. The annual nationwide average of tea consumption in Ireland is 2.7kg to 4kg per person. Tea in Ireland is steadily serious about milk or sugar, and brewed longer for a stronger type.[107]

Tea is prevalent in most cultures within the Middle East. In Arab custom, tea is a heart of attention for social gatherings.[citation needed]

Turkish tea is an major phase of that nation’s delicacies, and is basically the most steadily consumed sizzling drink, no matter the nation’s prolonged historical past of coffee consumption. In 2004 Turkey produced 205,500 tonnes of tea (6.4% of the realm’s total tea production), which made it one in every of an major tea markets on this planet,[108] with 120,000 lots being consumed in Turkey, and the leisure being exported.[109] In 2010 Turkey had the final note per capita consumption on this planet at 2.7 kg.[110] As of 2013, the per-capita consumption of Turkish tea exceeds 10 cups per day and 13.8 kg per year.[111] Tea is grown largely in Rize Province on the Sunless Sea float.[112]

In Iranian custom, tea is so broadly consumed, it is in overall the very very first thing supplied to a household guest.[113]

Russia has a prolonged, rich tea historical past dating to 1638 when tea became introduced to Tsar Michael. Social gatherings were belief to be incomplete without tea, which became historically brewed in a samovar.[114] This day 82% of Russians eat tea day-to-day[citation needed].

In Pakistan, each sad and inexperienced teas are current and are identified within the neighborhood as sabz chai and kahwah, respectively. The appreciated inexperienced tea known as kahwah is steadily served after each meal within the Pashtun belt of Balochistan and in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, which is the assign the Khyber Cross is learned. In central and southern Punjab and the metropolitan Sindh field of Pakistan, tea with milk and sugar (every so often with pistachios, cardamom, and lots others.), steadily steadily known as chai, is broadly consumed. It is basically the most overall beverage of households within the sphere. Within the northern Pakistani regions of Chitral and Gilgit-Baltistan, a salty, buttered Tibetan-type tea is consumed.

Within the transnational Kashmir field, which straddles the border between India and Pakistan, Kashmiri chai or noon chai, a red, creamy tea with pistachios, almonds, cardamom, and each so often cinnamon, is consumed primarily at special situations, weddings, and at some level of the winter months when it is supplied in many kiosks.

Indian tea custom is solid – the drink is basically the most smartly-most well liked sizzling beverage within the nation. It is consumed day-to-day[citation needed] in shut to all homes, supplied to guests, consumed in high amounts in domestic and generous environment, and is made with the addition of milk with or without spices, and generally sweetened. At homes it is every so often served with biscuits to be dipped within the tea and eaten before ingesting the tea. Extra generally than now not, it is inebriated in “doses” of diminutive cups (steadily known as “Lowering” chai if supplied at avenue tea distributors) quite than one neat cup. On 21 April 2012, the Deputy Chairman of Planning Price (India), Montek Singh Ahluwalia, stated tea could perhaps well be declared as nationwide drink by April 2013.[115][116] The pass is anticipated to boost the tea exchange within the nation. Speaking on the occasion, Assam Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi stated a special equipment for the tea exchange could perhaps well be announced within the prolonged flee to make particular its type.[117] The historical past of tea in India is especially rich.

In Burma (Myanmar), tea is consumed now not most efficient as sizzling drinks, but furthermore as candy tea and inexperienced tea identified within the neighborhood as laphet-yay and laphet-yay-gyan, respectively. Pickled tea leaves, identified within the neighborhood as laphet, are furthermore a nationwide delicacy. Pickled tea is steadily eaten with roasted sesame seeds, crispy fried beans, roasted peanuts and fried garlic chips.[118]

In Mali, gunpowder tea is served in series of three, starting with the final note oxidisation or strongest, unsweetened tea, within the neighborhood steadily known as “solid love loss of life”, followed by a 2nd serving, the assign the identical tea leaves are boiled all all over again with some sugar added (“lovely as existence”), and a third one, the assign the identical tea leaves are boiled for the third time with but extra sugar added (“candy as savor”). Green tea is the central ingredient of a distinctly Malian personalized, the “Grin”, an casual fetch collectively that cuts all the device by social and economic traces, starting in entrance of family compound gates within the afternoons and lengthening dreary into the night, and is broadly current in Bamako and various neat metropolis areas.[citation needed]

Within the United States, 80% of tea is consumed as iced tea.[119]Candy tea is native to the southeastern US, and is iconic in its delicacies.[120]


Worldwide tea production in 2017

Tea production – 2017
Nation Million Tonnes
 China 2.5
 India 1.3
 Kenya 0.44
 Sri Lanka 0.35
 Vietnam 0.26
World 6.1
Provide: FAOSTAT of the United Countries[121]

In 2017, world production of tea became about 6 million tonnes, led by China with 40% and India with 21% of the realm total (desk). Kenya, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam were various predominant producers.[121]

The tea fields within the foothills of Gorreana, Azores Islands, Portugal, essentially the most efficient European field various than Georgia to toughen inexperienced tea production.


Tea manufacturing facility in Taiwan

Tea is basically the most smartly-most well liked manufactured drink consumed on this planet, equaling all others – in conjunction with coffee, chocolate, soft drinks, and alcohol – mixed.[4] Most tea consumed outdoors East Asia is produced on neat plantations within the hilly regions of India and Sri Lanka, and is destined to be supplied to neat corporations. Reverse this neat-scale industrial production are many diminutive “gardens,” every so often minuscule plantations, that assemble highly sought-after teas prized by gourmets. These teas are each uncommon and pricey, and could perhaps furthermore be when in contrast with some of essentially the most costly wines in this appreciate.

India is the realm’s biggest tea-drinking nation,[122] despite the reality that the per capita consumption of tea remains a modest 750 grams (26 oz) per person yearly. Turkey, with 2.5 kilograms (5 lb 8 oz) of tea consumed per person per year, is the realm’s biggest per capita person.[123]

Labor and person safety problems

Multiple present[when?] experiences possess learned that nearly all Chinese and Indian teas get residues of banned toxic pesticides.[124][125][126][127]

Tea production in Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda has been reported to make enlighten of baby labor in accordance with the U.S. Department of Labor‘s Listing of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Compelled Labor[128] (a document on the worst forms of baby labor).


Workforce who elevate and pack tea on plantations in rising nations can face harsh working stipulations and could perhaps furthermore blueprint under the living wage.[129]

A replacement of our bodies independently certify the production of tea. Tea from licensed estates will also be supplied with a certification label on the pack. Doubtlessly the predominant certification schemes are Rainforest Alliance, Fairtrade, UTZ Licensed, and Natural,[citation needed] which furthermore certify various vegetation equivalent to coffee, cocoa and fruit. Rainforest Alliance licensed tea is accessible by Unilever brands Lipton and PG Guidelines in Western Europe, Australia and the US. Fairtrade licensed tea is accessible by a neat replacement of suppliers all the device by the realm. UTZ Licensed announced a partnership in 2008 with Sara Lee imprint Pickwick tea.

Manufacturing of natural tea has risen since its introduction in 1990 at Rembeng, Kondoli Tea Property, Assam.[130] 6,000 a total bunch natural tea were supplied in 1999.[131] About 75% of natural tea production is accessible in France, Germany, Japan, the UK, and the United States.[citation needed]


In 2013, China – the realm’s biggest producer of tea – exported 325,806 tonnes, or 14% of their total sever.[132] India exported 254,841 tonnes or 20% of their total production.[132]

In 2013, an major importer of tea became the Russian Federation with 173,070 tonnes, followed by the United Kingdom, the United States, and Pakistan.[132]


Tea bags

Tea bags

In 1907, American tea merchant Thomas Sullivan started distributing samples of his tea in diminutive bags of Chinese silk with a drawstring. Patrons seen they’ll furthermore merely leave the tea within the fetch and reuse it with original tea. Alternatively, the opportunity of this distribution and packaging capacity would now not be fully realised till in a while. All the device by World Battle II, tea became rationed within the UK. In 1953, after rationing within the UK ended, Tetley launched the tea fetch to the UK and it became a straight away success.

The “pyramid tea fetch” (or sachet), introduced by Lipton[133] and PG Guidelines/Scottish Blend in 1996,[134] makes an strive to tackle one in every of the connoisseurs’ arguments towards paper tea bags by manner of its 3-dimensional tetrahedron form, which enables extra room for tea leaves to make better whereas steeping.[citation needed] Alternatively, some forms of pyramid tea bags possess been criticised as being environmentally corrupt, since their synthetic field matter is now not as biodegradable as loose tea leaves and paper tea bags.[135]

Unfastened tea

A mix of loose-leaf sad teas

The tea leaves are packaged loosely in a canister, paper fetch, or various container equivalent to a tea chest. Some entire teas, equivalent to rolled gunpowder tea leaves, which face up to crumbling, are every so often vacuum-packed for freshness in aluminised packaging for storage and retail. The loose tea ought to restful be individually measured to be used, taking into anecdote flexibility and flavour administration at the expense of comfort. Strainers, tea balls, tea presses, filtered teapots, and infusion bags extinguish loose leaves from floating within the tea and over-brewing. A pale capacity uses a 3-portion lidded teacup known as a gaiwan, the lid of which is tilted to decant the tea into a various cup for consumption.

Compressed tea

Compressed tea (equivalent to pu-erh) is produced for comfort in transport, storage, and ageing. It is going to generally be kept longer without spoilage than loose leaf tea.

Compressed tea is ready by loosening leaves from the cake the enlighten of a diminutive knife, and steeping the extracted objects in water. All the device by the Tang dynasty, as described by Lu Yu, compressed tea became ground into a powder, mixed with sizzling water, and ladled into bowls, ensuing in a “frothy” combination.[136] Within the Song dynasty, the tea powder would as an alternative be whisked with sizzling water within the bowl. Even supposing now not practiced in China this present day, the whisking strategy of constructing ready powdered tea became transmitted to Japan by Zen Buddhist monks, and is restful pale to rearrange matcha within the Eastern tea ceremony.[137]

Compressed tea became essentially the most smartly-most well liked bear of tea in China at some level of the Tang dynasty.[138] By the starting of the Ming dynasty, it had been displaced by loose-leaf tea.[139] It remains current, however, within the Himalayan nations and Mongolian steppes. In Mongolia, tea bricks were ubiquitous ample to be pale as a bear of currency. Among Himalayan peoples, compressed tea is consumed by combining it with yak butter and salt to assemble butter tea.[140]

Prompt tea

“Prompt tea”, much like freeze-dried quick coffee and a replace for brewed tea, will also be consumed both sizzling or chilly. Prompt tea became developed within the 1930s, with Nestlé introducing the first commercial product in 1946, whereas Redi-Tea debuted quick iced tea in 1953.

Delicacy of flavour is sacrificed for comfort. Additives equivalent to chai, vanilla, honey or fruit, are current, as is powdered milk.

All the device by the Second World Battle British and Canadian troopers were issued an quick tea identified as “Compo” in their Composite Ration Packs. These blocks of quick tea, powdered milk, and sugar weren’t continuously successfully acquired. As Royal Canadian Artillery Gunner, George C Blackburn seen:

But, unquestionably, the characteristic of Compo rations destined to be remembered past all others is Compo tea…Instructions train to “sprinkle powder on heated water and bid to the boil, stirring successfully, three heaped teaspoons to 1 pint of water.”
Every possible variation within the preparation of this tea became tried, but…it continuously ended up the identical manner. Whereas restful too sizzling to drink, it is a factual-having a glimpse cup of solid tea. Even when it turns into factual chilly ample to be sipped gingerly, it is restful a factual-tasting cup of tea, ought to you love your tea solid and candy. But let it chilly ample to be quaffed and enjoyed, and your lips will doubtless be coated with a sticky scum that forms all the device by the ground, which if left undisturbed will modified into a leathery membrane that can also be hurt spherical your finger and flipped away…[141]

Bottled and canned tea

Canned tea is accessible prepared and ready to drink. It became introduced in 1981 in Japan.

The predominant bottled tea became introduced by an Indonesian tea firm PT. Sinar Sosro in 1969 with the logo name Teh Botol Sosro (or Sosro bottled tea).[142]

In 1983, Swiss-primarily based completely Bischofszell Food Ltd., became the first firm to bottle iced tea on an industrial scale.[143]


Storage stipulations and form resolve the shelf existence of tea. Sunless tea’s is better than inexperienced’s. Some, equivalent to flower teas, could perhaps furthermore closing most efficient a month or so. Others, equivalent to pu-erh, toughen with age.

To remain original and extinguish mold, tea wants to be kept faraway from heat, light, air, and moisture. Tea ought to restful be kept at room temperature in an air-tight container. Sunless tea in a fetch within a sealed opaque canister could perhaps furthermore defend for 2 years. Green tea deteriorates extra without note, generally in now not as much as a year. Tightly rolled gunpowder tea leaves defend longer than the extra commence-leafed Chun Mee tea.

Storage existence for all teas will also be extended by the enlighten of desiccant or oxygen-spicy packets, vacuum sealing, or refrigeration in air-tight containers (with the exception of inexperienced tea, the assign discrete enlighten of refrigeration or freezing is quick and temperature variation kept to a minimal).[144]


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