drink made out of infusing boiling water with the leaves of the tea plant

Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) from Köhler’s Medicinal Vegetation, 1897

Tea plant

Tea is an fragrant beverage generally ready by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to East Asia.[3] After water, it’s far presumably the most customarily consumed drink on this planet.[4] There are many differing forms of tea; some, delight in Darjeeling and Chinese language greens, grasp a cooling, rather bitter, and astringent flavour,[5] whereas others grasp vastly different profiles that consist of candy, nutty, floral or grassy notes.

Tea originated in Southwest China at some level of the Shang dynasty, the put it became as soon as susceptible as a medicinal drink.[6] An early credible file of tea ingesting dates to the third century AD, in a medical textual mumble material written by Hua Tuo.[7] It became as soon as popularized as a recreational drink at some level of the Chinese language Tang dynasty, and tea ingesting unfold to different East Asian countries. Portuguese priests and merchants introduced it to Europe at some level of the 16th century.[8] Throughout the 17th century, ingesting tea grew to develop into smartly-liked among Britons, who started gargantuan-scale manufacturing and commercialization of the plant in India. Mixed, China and India supplied 62% of the sector’s tea in 2016.

The timeframe natural tea refers to drinks no longer made out of Camellia sinensis: infusions of fruit, leaves, or different aspects of the plant, a lot like steeps of rosehip, chamomile, or rooibos. These are generally[9] known as tisanes or natural infusions to conclude confusion with tea made out of the tea plant.


The Chinese language personality for tea is , firstly written with a further stroke as (pronounced , susceptible as a note for a bitter herb), and obtained its fresh make at some level of the Tang Dynasty.[10][11][12] The note is pronounced otherwise in the so a lot of forms of Chinese language, a lot like chá in Mandarin, zo and dzo in Wu Chinese language, and ta and te in Min Chinese language.[13] One suggestion is that the so a lot of pronunciations can grasp arisen from the so a lot of words for tea in used China, as an instance (荼) can grasp given upward push to ;[14] historical phonologists nevertheless argued that the cha, te and dzo all arose from the same root with a reconstructed pronunciation dra, which changed ensuing from sound shift by arrangement of the centuries.[15] There grasp been different used words for tea, even supposing ming () is the completely different one restful generally use.[15][16] It has been proposed that the Chinese language words for tea, tu, cha and ming, can grasp been borrowed from the Austro-Asiatic languages of those who inhabited southwest China; cha as an instance can grasp been derived from an primitive Austro-Asiatic root *la, which technique “leaf”.[17]

Tea plantation in Assam, India

The few exceptions of words for tea that develop no longer tumble into the three tall groups of te, cha and chai are the minor languages from the botanical put of foundation of the tea plant from which the Chinese language words for tea may possibly well need been borrowed firstly: [15] northeast Burma and southwest Yunnan. Examples are la (which technique tea bought in numerous locations) and miiem (wild tea gathered in the hills) from the Wa of us, letpet in Burmese and meng in Lamet which technique “fermented tea leaves”, as nicely as miang in Thai (“fermented tea”).

Most Chinese language languages, a lot like Mandarin and Cantonese, issue it along the traces of cha, nevertheless Hokkien and Teochew Chinese language kinds along the Southern hover of China issue it delight in teh. These two pronunciations grasp made their separate programs into different languages across the sector.[18]

Starting in the early 17th century, the Dutch performed a dominant feature in the early European tea trade by arrangement of the Dutch East India Firm.[19] The Dutch borrowed the note for “tea” (thee) from Min Chinese language, either by arrangement of trade suddenly from Hokkien audio system in Formosa the put they’d established a port, or from Malay merchants in Bantam, Java.[20] The Dutch then introduced to different European languages this Min pronunciation for tea, along with English tea, French thé, Spanish , and German Tee.[21] This pronunciation will most definitely be presumably the most traditional make worldwide.[22] The Cha pronunciation came from the Cantonese chàh of Guangzhou (Canton) and the ports of Hong Kong and Macau, which grasp been also valuable aspects of contact, particularly with the Portuguese merchants who settled Macau in the 16th century. The Portuguese adopted the Cantonese pronunciation “chá”, and unfold it to India.[20] On the opposite hand, the Korean and Eastern pronunciations of cha weren’t from Cantonese, nevertheless grasp been borrowed into Korean and Eastern at some level of earlier sessions of Chinese language history.

A third make, the more and more frequent chai, came from Persian چای [tʃɒːi] chay. Each the châ and chây kinds are point out in Persian dictionaries.[23] They’re derived from the Northern Chinese language pronunciation of chá,[24] which passed overland to Central Asia and Persia, the put it picked up the Persian grammatical suffix -yi before passing on to Russian as чай ([tɕæj], chay), Arabic as شاي (pronounced shay [ʃæiː] ensuing from the dearth of a /t͡ʃ/ sound in Arabic), Urdu as چائے chay, Hindi as चाय chāy, Turkish as çay, and loads others.[25] English has all three kinds: cha or char (both pronounced /ɑː/), attested from the 16th century; tea, from the 17th; and chai, from the 20th. On the opposite hand, the make chai refers particularly to a unlit tea mixed with sugar or honey, spices and milk in contemporary English.[26]

Foundation and history

A 19th-century Eastern painting depicting Shennong: Chinese language legends credit Shennong with the invention of tea.[27]

Tea flowers are native to East Asia, and presumably originated in the borderlands of north Burma and southwestern China.[28]

  • Chinese language (small leaf) tea
  • Chinese language Western Yunnan Assam (gargantuan leaf) tea
    • Indian Assam (gargantuan leaf) tea
  • Chinese language Southern Yunnan Assam (gargantuan leaf) tea

Chinese language (small leaf) form tea (C. sinensis var. sinensis) can grasp originated in southern China presumably with hybridization of unknown wild tea kinfolk. On the opposite hand, since there are no known wild populations of this tea, the actual field of its foundation is speculative.[29][30]

Given their genetic variations forming distinct clades, Chinese language Assam form tea (C. sinensis var. assamica) can grasp two different parentages – one being point out in southern Yunnan (Xishuangbanna, Pu’er City) and the so a lot of in western Yunnan (Lincang, Baoshan). Many forms of Southern Yunnan assam tea grasp been hybridized with the closely connected species Camellia taliensis. Now not like Southern Yunnan Assam tea, Western Yunnan Assam tea shares many genetic similarities with Indian Assam form tea (also C. sinensis var. assamica). Thus, Western Yunnan Assam tea and Indian Assam tea both can grasp originated from the same parent plant in the plight the put southwestern China, Indo-Burma, and Tibet meet. On the opposite hand, because the Indian Assam tea shares no haplotypes with Western Yunnan Assam tea, Indian Assam tea is doubtless to grasp originated from an independent domestication. Some Indian Assam tea looks to grasp hybridized with the species Camellia pubicosta.[29][30]

Assuming a technology of 12 years, Chinese language small leaf tea is estimated to grasp diverged from Assam tea round 22,000 years ago whereas Chinese language Assam tea and Indian Assam tea diverged 2,800 years ago. The divergence of Chinese language small leaf tea and Assam tea would correspond to the closing glacial maximum.[29][30]

Tea ingesting can grasp begun in the roar of Yunnan roar, when it became as soon as susceptible for medicinal capabilities. It is far regularly believed that in Sichuan, “of us began to boil tea leaves for consumption into a concentrated liquid with out the addition of various leaves or herbs, thereby the use of tea as a bitter but stimulating drink, in resolution to as a medicinal concoction.”[6]

Chinese language legends attribute the invention of tea to the legendary Shennong (in central and northerly China) in 2737 BC even supposing proof suggests that tea ingesting can grasp been introduced from the southwest of China (Sichuan/Yunnan plight).[27] The earliest written data of tea come from China. The note looks in the Shijing and different used texts to indicate a form of “bitter vegetable” (苦菜), and it’s far seemingly that it referred to many substitute flowers a lot like sowthistle, chicory, or smartweed,[31] as nicely as tea.[15] Within the Chronicles of Huayang, it became as soon as recorded that the Ba of us in Sichuan introduced tu to the Zhou king. The Qin later conquered the roar of Ba and its neighbour Shu, and in response to the 17th century scholar Gu Yanwu who wrote in Ri Zhi Lu (日知錄): “It became as soon as after the Qin had taken Shu that they discovered how to drink tea.”[2] One other seemingly early reference to tea is point out in a letter written by the Qin Dynasty classic Liu Kun who requested that some “precise tea” to be sent to him.[32]

The earliest known bodily proof[33] of tea became as soon as point out in 2016 in the mausoleum of Emperor Jing of Han in Xi’an, indicating that tea from the genus Camellia became as soon as inebriated by Han Dynasty emperors as early because the 2nd century BC.[34] The Han dynasty work, “The Contract for a Childhood”, written by Wang Bao in 59 BC,[35] contains the first known reference to boiling tea. Among the many tasks listed to be undertaken by the youth, the contract states that “he shall boil tea and grasp the utensils” and “he shall preserve shut tea at Wuyang”.[2] The first file of tea cultivation will most definitely be dated to this period (the reign of Emperor Xuan of Han), wherein tea became as soon as cultivated on Meng Mountain (蒙山) shut to Chengdu.[36] One other early credible file of tea ingesting dates to the third century AD, in a medical textual mumble material by Hua Tuo, who stated, “to drink bitter t’u consistently makes one reveal better.”[37] On the opposite hand, before the mid-eighth century Tang dynasty, tea-ingesting became as soon as essentially a southern Chinese language note.[38] It grew to develop into extensively standard at some level of the Tang Dynasty, when it became as soon as unfold to Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.

By the centuries, a amount of how for processing tea, and an growth of various forms of tea, grasp been developed. Throughout the Tang dynasty, tea became as soon as steamed, then pounded and shaped into cake make,[39] whereas in the Song dynasty, free-leaf tea became as soon as developed and grew to develop into standard. Throughout the Yuan and Ming dynasties, unoxidized tea leaves grasp been first pan-fried, then rolled and dried, a job that stops the oxidation job that turns the leaves unlit, thereby allowing tea to dwell green. Within the 15th century, oolong tea, in which the leaves grasp been allowed to partially oxidize before pan-frying, became as soon as developed.[38] Western tastes, nevertheless, favoured the fully oxidized unlit tea, and the leaves grasp been allowed to oxidize extra. Yellow tea became as soon as an unintended discovery in the manufacturing of green tea at some level of the Ming dynasty, when it looks sloppy practices allowed the leaves to flip yellow, nevertheless yielded a different flavour as a result.[40]

Tea-weighing space north of Batumi, Russian Empire before 1915

Tea became as soon as first introduced to Portuguese priests and merchants in China at some level of the 16th century, at which period it became as soon as termed chá.[8] The earliest European reference to tea, written as Chiai, came from Delle navigationi e viaggi written by a Venetian, Giambattista Ramusio, in 1545.[41] The first recorded shipment of tea by a European nation became as soon as in 1607 when the Dutch East India Firm moved a cargo of tea from Macao to Java, then two years later, the Dutch bought the first assignment of tea which became as soon as from Hirado in Japan to be shipped to Europe.[42] Tea grew to develop into a smartly-liked drink in The Hague in the Netherlands, and the Dutch introduced the drink to Germany, France and across the Atlantic to Unique Amsterdam (Unique York).[43]

The first file of tea in English came from a letter written by Richard Wickham, who ran an East India Firm place of work in Japan, writing to a merchant in Macao soliciting for “presumably the most attention-grabbing form of chaw” in 1615. Peter Mundy, a traveller and merchant who discovered tea in Fujian in 1637, wrote, “chaa – completely water with a form of herb boyled in it “.[44][45] Tea became as soon as sold in a espresso dwelling in London in 1657, Samuel Pepys tasted tea in 1660, and Catherine of Braganza took the tea-ingesting behavior to the British court docket when she married Charles II in 1662. Tea, nevertheless, became as soon as no longer extensively consumed in Britain till the 18th century, and remained pricey till the latter portion of that length. British drinkers preferred as a arrangement to add sugar and milk to unlit tea, and unlit tea overtook green tea in popularity in the 1720s.[46] Tea smuggling at some level of the 18th century ended in the classic public being ready to grasp satisfactory cash and say tea. The British authorities removed the tax on tea, thereby eliminating the smuggling trade by 1785.[47] In Britain and Ireland, tea became as soon as in the muse consumed as a luxurious item on particular cases, a lot like spiritual festivals, wakes, and domestic work gatherings. The mark of tea in Europe fell progressively at some level of the 19th century, particularly after Indian tea began to will most definitely be found gargantuan portions; by the leisurely 19th century tea had develop into an on a conventional basis beverage for all ranges of society.[48] The popularity of tea also told an growth of historical events – the Tea Act of 1773 provoked the Boston Tea Birthday party that escalated into the American Revolution. The must deal with the grief of British trade deficit induced by the Manchu Emperor Kangxi who proclaimed that “China became as soon as the heart of the sector, possessing the whole lot they may possibly well ever resolve on or need and banned distant places merchandise from being sold in China!” He also decreed in 1685 “That every particular person goods bought from China desires to be paid for in Silver Coin or Bullion.” This induced all different Nation’s Merchants to rep some different product, opium, to promote to China to earn help the silver they grasp been required to paid for tea, jade and silk. Later, Chinese language Authorities makes an strive to curtail the trade in opium with out stress-free trade restrictions on distant places goods, resulted in the Opium Wars.[49]

Chinese language small leaf form tea became as soon as introduced into India in 1836 by the British in an strive to interrupt the Chinese language monopoly on tea.[50] In 1841, Archibald Campbell brought seeds of Chinese language tea from the Kumaun roar and experimented with planting tea in Darjeeling. The Alubari tea garden became as soon as opened in 1856 and Darjeeling tea began to be produced.[51] In 1848, Robert Fortune became as soon as sent by the East India Firm on a mission to China to raise the tea plant help to Advantageous Britain. He started his streak in high secrecy as his mission came about in the lull between the Anglo-Chinese language First Opium Battle (1839–1842) and 2d Opium Battle (1856–1860).[52] The Chinese language tea flowers he brought help grasp been introduced to the Himalayas, even supposing most did no longer dwell on. The British had discovered that a different differ of tea became as soon as endemic to Assam and the northeast roar of India and that it became as soon as susceptible by the native Singpho of us, and these grasp been then grown as a substitute of the Chinese language tea plant and then grasp been subsequently hybridized with Chinese language small leaf form tea as nicely as doubtless closely connected wild tea species. The use of the Chinese language planting and cultivation ways, the British launched a tea trade by offering land in Assam to any European who agreed to cultivate it for export.[50] Tea became as soon as firstly consumed completely by anglicized Indians; nevertheless, it grew to develop into extensively standard in India in the 1950s on story of of a a hit advertising advertising campaign by the India Tea Board.[50]

Cultivation and harvesting

Tea plantation personnel in Sri Lanka

Camellia sinensis is an evergreen plant that grows essentially in tropical and subtropical climates.[53] Some kinds may possibly well tolerate marine climates and are cultivated as far north as Cornwall in England,[54]Perthshire in Scotland,[55]Washington roar in the United States,[56] and Vancouver Island in Canada.[57] Within the Southern Hemisphere, tea is grown as far south as Hobart on the Australian island of Tasmania[58][59] and Waikato in Unique Zealand.[60]

Tea flowers are propagated from seed and cuttings; about 4 to 12 years are valuable for a plant to undergo seed and about three years before a peculiar plant is ready for harvesting.[53] Besides to a zone 8 climate or warmer, tea flowers require as a minimal 127 cm (50 in) of rainfall a one year and preserve shut acidic soils.[61] Many prime quality tea flowers are cultivated at elevations of as a lot as 1,500 m (4,900 ft) above sea level. Even supposing at these heights the flowers develop more slowly, they produce an even bigger flavour.[62]

Two predominant kinds are susceptible: Camellia sinensis var. sinensis, which is susceptible for many Chinese language, Formosan and Eastern teas, and C. sinensis var. assamica, susceptible in Pu-erh and most Indian teas (nevertheless no longer Darjeeling). Within these botanical kinds, many strains and contemporary clonal kinds are known. Leaf dimension is the chief criterion for the classification of tea flowers, with three valuable classifications being,[63]Assam form, characterised by the biggest leaves; China form, characterised by the smallest leaves; and Cambodian form, characterised by leaves of intermediate dimension. The Cambod form tea (C. assamica subsp. lasiocaly) became as soon as firstly thought just a few form of assam tea. On the opposite hand, later genetic work confirmed that it’s far a hybrid between Chinese language small leaf tea and assam form tea.[64] Darjeeling tea also looks to be hybrids between Chinese language small leaf tea and assam form tea.[65]

A tea plant will develop into a tree of as a lot as 16 m (52 ft) if left undisturbed,[53] nevertheless cultivated flowers are usually pruned to waist top for ease of plucking. Also, the quick flowers undergo more unusual shoots which provide unusual and gentle leaves and magnify the advantageous of the tea.[66]

Most productive the head 1–2 inches (2.5–5.1 cm) of the moderate plant are picked. These buds and leaves are known as ‘flushes’.[67] A plant will develop a peculiar flush every seven to 15 days at some level of the rising season. Leaves that are slack in construction are inclined to form better-flavoured teas.[53]

Pests of tea consist of mosquito bugs of the genus Helopeltis (that are honest steady bugs that must no longer be puzzled with the dipteran) that will possibly well tatter leaves, so that they may possibly well very nicely be sprayed with insecticides. Besides, there may possibly well very nicely be Lepidopteran leaf feeders and a amount of tea diseases.

Chemical composition

Physically talking, tea has properties of both an answer and a suspension. It is far an answer of your entire water-soluble compounds which grasp been extracted from the tea leaves, such because the polyphenols and amino acids, nevertheless is a suspension when the total insoluble parts are thought about, such because the cellulose in the tea leaves.[68]

Caffeine constitutes about 3% of tea’s dry weight, translating to between 30 milligrams (0.0011 oz) and 90 milligrams (0.0032 oz) per 8-oz (250-ml) cup looking out on the kind, label,[69] and brewing technique.[70] A seek discovered that the caffeine mumble material of 1 gram (0.035 oz) of unlit tea ranged from 22–28 milligrams (0.00078–0.00099 oz), whereas the caffeine mumble material of 1 gram (0.035 oz) of green tea ranged from 11–20 milligrams (0.00039–0.00071 oz), reflecting a valuable disagreement.[71] Tea also contains small amounts of theobromine and theophylline, that are stimulants, and xanthines a lot like caffeine.[72]

New tea leaves in a amount of phases of deliver.

Unlit and green teas grasp no valuable nutrients in valuable amounts, other than the dietary mineral, manganese at 0.5 milligrams (1.8×10−5 oz) per cup or 26% of the Each day Charge.[73] Thanks to smartly-liked environmental pollution, fluoride generally occur in tea. Sure forms of brick tea made out of susceptible leaves and stems grasp the absolute best ranges.[74]

The astringency in tea may possibly well very nicely be attributed to the presence of polyphenols. These are presumably the most abundant compounds in tea leaves, making up 30–40% of their composition.[75]
Polyphenols consist of flavonoids, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and different catechins.[76][77]

It has been instructed that green and unlit tea may possibly well provide protection to against cancer[78] or different diseases a lot like weight problems[79] or Alzheimer’s illness,[80] nevertheless the compounds point out in green tea grasp no longer been conclusively demonstrated to grasp any develop on human diseases.[81][82]

Processing and classification

Teas of various ranges of oxidation (L to R): green, yellow, oolong, and unlit

Tea is regularly divided into categories in response to how it’s far processed.[83] On the least six differing kinds are produced:

  • White: wilted and unoxidized;
  • Yellow: unwilted and unoxidized nevertheless allowed to yellow;
  • Green: unwilted and unoxidized;
  • Oolong: wilted, bruised, and partially oxidized;
  • Unlit: wilted, generally beaten, and fully oxidized (known as 紅茶 [hóngchá], “purple tea” in Chinese language and different East Asian tea custom);
  • Post-fermented (Darkish): green tea that has been allowed to ferment/compost (known as 黑茶 [hēichá] “unlit tea” in Chinese language tea custom).

After picking, the leaves of C. sinensis soon delivery as a lot as wilt and oxidize except suddenly dried. An enzymatic oxidation job attributable to the plant’s intracellular enzymes causes the leaves to flip gradually darker as their chlorophyll breaks down and tannins are launched. This darkening is stopped at a predetermined stage by heating, which deactivates the enzymes responsible. Within the manufacturing of unlit teas, halting by heating is implemented concurrently with drying. Without cautious moisture and temperature administration at some level of make and packaging, deliver of undesired molds and bacteria may possibly well establish tea unfit for consumption.

Additional processing and components

Same old processing programs of tea leaves

After classic processing, teas may possibly well very nicely be altered by arrangement of extra processing steps before being sold,[84] and is regularly consumed with additions to the dear tea leaf and water added at some level of preparation or ingesting. Examples of extra processing steps that occur before tea is sold are blending, flavouring, scenting, and decaffeination of teas. Examples of components added on the level of consumption consist of milk, sugar and lemon.


Tea blending is the combo of various teas together to develop the final product. With regards to all tea in baggage and most free tea sold in the West is mixed.[citation needed] Such teas may possibly well combine others from the same cultivation plight or diverse different ones. The plot is to manufacture consistency, better type, better mark, or some aggregate of the three.


Flavoured and scented teas add unusual aromas and flavours to the rotten tea. This would possibly well very nicely be performed by arrangement of suddenly adding flavouring agents, a lot like ginger or dried ginger, cloves, mint leaves, cardamom, bergamot (point out in Earl Grey), vanilla, and spearmint. Alternatively, on story of tea with out problems retains odours, it may possibly well very nicely be placed in proximity to an fragrant ingredient to resolve in its aroma, as in former jasmine tea.[85][unreliable source?]


Unlit tea is regularly all for milk

The addition of milk to tea in Europe became as soon as first talked about in 1680 by the epistolist Madame de Sévigné.[86] Many teas are historically inebriated with milk in cultures the put dairy merchandise are consumed. These consist of Indian masala chai and British tea blends. These teas are inclined to be very hearty forms of unlit tea which is ready to be tasted by arrangement of the milk, a lot like Assams, or the East Friesian blend. Milk is believed to neutralise final tannins and cleave acidity.[87][88] The Han Chinese language develop no longer usually drink milk with tea nevertheless the Manchus develop, and the elite of the Qing Dynasty of the Chinese language Empire persisted to develop so. Hong Kong-vogue milk tea is in response to British colonial habits. Tibetans and different Himalayan peoples historically drink tea with milk or yak butter and salt. In Eastern European countries (Russia, Poland and Hungary) and in Italy, tea is generally served with lemon juice. In Poland, tea with milk is named a bawarka (“Bavarian vogue”), and is regularly inebriated by pregnant and nursing girls folk. In Australia, tea with milk is white tea.

The reveal of steps in getting ready a cup of tea is a noteworthy-debated subject, and can fluctuate extensively between cultures and even folks. Some reveal it’s far preferable as a arrangement to add the milk to the cup before the tea, because the hot temperature of freshly brewed tea can denature the proteins point out in unusual milk, a lot just like the alternate in form of UHT milk, ensuing in an rotten-tasting beverage.[89] Others insist it’s far more healthy as a arrangement to add the milk to the cup after the tea, as unlit tea is regularly brewed as shut to boiling as seemingly. The addition of milk chills the beverage at some level of the dear brewing portion, if brewing in a cup in resolution to the use of a pot, which technique the restful flavour of an correct tea can no longer be fully preferred. By adding the milk afterwards, it’s far simpler to dissolve sugar in the tea and likewise to establish obvious that the specified amount of milk is added, because the colour of the tea may possibly well very nicely be noticed.[citation needed] Historically, the reveal of steps became as soon as taken as a demonstration of class: completely those nicely off satisfactory to grasp satisfactory cash steady-advantageous porcelain would be confident of its being ready to deal with being uncovered to boiling water unadulterated with milk.[90] Greater temperature disagreement technique faster heat transfer, so the earlier milk is added, the slower the drink cools. A 2007 seek published in the European Heart Journal discovered certain priceless effects of tea may possibly well very nicely be lost by arrangement of the addition of milk.[91]


Unlit tea

Neatly-liked forms of unlit tea consist of Assam, Nepal, Darjeeling, Nilgiri, Rize, Keemun, and Ceylon teas.

Quite so a lot of the active substances in unlit tea develop no longer make at temperatures lower than 90 °C (194 °F).[92] This skill that, unlit tea in the West is regularly steeped in water shut to its boiling level, at round 99 °C (210 °F). Since boiling level drops with increasing altitude, it’s far advanced to brew unlit tea successfully in mountainous areas.

Western unlit teas are usually brewed for approximately four minutes. In many regions of the sector, nevertheless, actively boiling water is susceptible and the tea is regularly stewed. In India, unlit tea is regularly boiled for fifteen minutes or longer to establish Masala chai, as an excellent brew is preferred. Tea is regularly strained whereas serving.

A food security administration community of the World Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published a former for getting ready a cup of tea (ISO 3103: Tea – Preparation of liquor to be used in sensory tests), essentially supposed for standardizing preparation for comparison and score capabilities.

Green tea

In regions of the sector that preserve shut light beverages, such because the Some distance East, green tea is steeped in water round 80 to 85 °C (176 to 185 °F). Areas a lot like North Africa or Central Asia preserve shut a bitter tea, and hotter water is susceptible. In Morocco, green tea is steeped in boiling water for 15 minutes.

The container in which green tea is steeped is regularly warmed beforehand to conclude premature cooling. Excessive-advantageous green and white teas can grasp unusual water added as many as 5 or more cases, looking out on differ, at more and more better temperatures.

Oolong tea

Oolong tea is brewed round 82 to 96 °C (185 to 205 °F), with the brewing vessel warmed before pouring the water. Yixing purple clay teapots are the former brewing-vessel for oolong tea which is ready to be brewed just a few cases from the same leaves, no longer like green tea, seeming to make stronger with reuse. Within the southern Chinese language and Taiwanese Gongfu tea ceremony, the first brew is discarded, because it’s far believed just a few rinse of leaves in resolution to a first price brew.

Pu-erh tea

Pu-erh teas require boiling water for infusion. Some preserve shut to quickly rinse pu-erh for diverse seconds with boiling water to resolve away tea mud which accumulates from the ageing job, then infuse it on the boiling level (100 °C or 212 °F), and allow it to steep from 30 seconds to 5 minutes.

Masala chai

That technique “spiced tea”, masala chai tea is ready the use of unlit or green tea with milk (in which case it may possibly well very nicely be known as a “latte“), and may possibly well very nicely be spiced with ginger.[93]

Chilly brew tea

While most tea is ready the use of hot water, it will most definitely be seemingly to brew a beverage from tea the use of room temperature or cooled water. This requires longer steeping time to extract the principle parts, and produces a different flavour profile. Chilly brews use about 1.5 cases the tea leaves that is doubtless to be susceptible for hot steeping, and are refrigerated for 4–10 hours. The technique of making chilly brew tea is rather more shining than that for chilly brew espresso.

Chilly brewing has some disadvantages in comparison with hot steeping. If the leaves or provide water grasp unwanted bacteria, they may possibly well flourish, whereas the use of hot water has presumably the most attention-grabbing thing about killing most bacteria. Right here is much less of a grief in contemporary cases and developed regions. Chilly brewing may possibly well additionally allow for much less caffeine to be extracted.

Pouring from top

The flavour of tea is doubtless to be altered by pouring it from different heights, ensuing in a amount of levels of aeration.[94] The art of elevated pouring is susceptible largely to make stronger the flavour of the tea, whereas cooling the beverage for instantaneous consumption.[94]

In Southeast Asia, the note of pouring tea from a top has been sophisticated extra the use of unlit tea to which condensed milk is added, poured from a top from one cup to one more diverse cases in alternating vogue and in snappy succession, to form a tea with entrapped air bubbles, rising a frothy “head” in the cup. This beverage, teh tarik, literally, “pulled tea” (which has its foundation as a hot Indian tea beverage), has a creamier type than flat milk tea and is total in the roar.

Tea custom

Masala chai from India with garnishes

Turkish tea served in conventional small glass and corresponding plate

Iced tea with a sever of lemon

Tea may possibly well very nicely be consumed early in the day to intensify composed alertness[citation needed]; it contains L-theanine, theophylline, and certain caffeine[5] (generally known as theine). Decaffeinated manufacturers are also sold. While natural teas are also known as tea, most of them develop no longer grasp leaves from the tea plant. While tea is the second most consumed beverage on Earth after water, in many cultures it will most definitely be consumed at elevated social events, such because the tea occasion.

Tea ceremonies grasp arisen in numerous cultures, such because the Chinese language and Eastern traditions, every of which employs certain ways and ritualised protocol of brewing and serving tea for enjoyment in a cultured setting. One make of Chinese language tea ceremony is the Gongfu tea ceremony, which customarily uses small Yixing clay teapots and oolong tea.

Within the UK 63% of of us drink tea every single day[95] and is perceived as one amongst Britain’s cultural beverages. It is far former for a host to give tea to visitors soon after their arrival. Tea is consumed both at dwelling and outside the home, most regularly in cafés or tea rooms. Afternoon tea with cakes on dazzling porcelain is a cultural stereotype. In southwest England, many cafés lend a hand a cream tea, consisting of scones, clotted cream, and jam alongside a pot of tea. In some aspects of Britain and India ‘tea’ may possibly well additionally discuss with the evening meal.

Ireland has prolonged been one amongst the biggest per capita consumers of tea on this planet. The national moderate is four cups per particular person per day, with many folk ingesting six cups or more. Tea in Ireland is regularly all for milk or sugar and is rather spicier and stronger than the former English blend.[citation needed]

Tea is prevalent in most cultures in the Center East. In Arab custom, tea is a focal level for social gatherings.[citation needed]

Turkish tea is a essentially crucial portion of that nation’s cuisine, and is presumably the most generally consumed hot drink, despite the nation’s prolonged history of espresso consumption. In 2004 Turkey produced 205,500 tonnes of tea (6.4% of the sector’s total tea manufacturing), which made it one amongst the biggest tea markets on this planet,[96] with 120,000 loads being consumed in Turkey, and the the relaxation being exported.[97] In 2010 Turkey had the absolute best per capita consumption on this planet at 2.7 kg.[98] As of 2013, the per-capita consumption of Turkish tea exceeds 10 cups per day and 13.8 kg per one year.[99] Tea is grown largely in Rize Province on the Unlit Sea hover.[100]

In Iranian custom, tea is so extensively consumed, it’s far regularly the very first thing equipped to a household guest.[101]

Russia has a prolonged, rich tea history relationship to 1638 when tea became as soon as introduced to Tsar Michael. Social gatherings grasp been thought about incomplete with out tea, which became as soon as historically brewed in a samovar, and as of late 82% of Russians say tea every single day[citation needed].

In Pakistan, both unlit and green teas are standard and are known domestically as sabz chai and kahwah, respectively. The most up-tp-date green tea known as kahwah is regularly served after every meal in the Pashtun belt of Balochistan and in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, which is the put the Khyber Pass is discovered. In central and southern Punjab and the metropolitan Sindh roar of Pakistan, tea with milk and sugar (generally with pistachios, cardamom, and loads others.), generally most regularly known as chai, is extensively consumed. It is far presumably the most traditional beverage of households in the roar. Within the northern Pakistani regions of Chitral and Gilgit-Baltistan, a salty, buttered Tibetan-vogue tea is consumed.

Within the transnational Kashmir roar, which straddles the border between India and Pakistan, Kashmiri chai or midday chai, a red, creamy tea with pistachios, almonds, cardamom, and customarily cinnamon, is consumed essentially at particular cases, weddings, and at some level of the iciness months when it’s far sold in many kiosks.

Indian tea custom is sturdy – the drink is presumably the most smartly-preferred hot beverage in the nation. It is far consumed every single day[citation needed] in on the subject of all properties, equipped to visitors, consumed in high amounts in domestic and unparalleled atmosphere, and is made with the addition of milk with or with out spices, and frequently sweetened. At homes it’s far most regularly served with biscuits to be dipped in the tea and eaten before ingesting the tea. More most regularly than no longer, it’s far inebriated in “doses” of small cups (most regularly known as “Chopping” chai if sold at avenue tea vendors) in resolution to 1 gargantuan cup. On 21 April 2012, the Deputy Chairman of Planning Charge (India), Montek Singh Ahluwalia, talked about tea would be declared as national drink by April 2013.[102][103] The transfer is anticipated to raise the tea trade in the nation. Talking on the occasion, Assam Chief Minister Tarun Gogoi talked just a few different kit for the tea trade would be introduced at some point soon to establish obvious that its construction.[104] The history of tea in India is particularly rich.

In Burma (Myanmar), tea is consumed no longer completely as hot drinks, nevertheless also as candy tea and green tea known domestically as laphet-yay and laphet-yay-gyan, respectively. Pickled tea leaves, known domestically as laphet, are also a national delicacy. Pickled tea is regularly eaten with roasted sesame seeds, crispy fried beans, roasted peanuts and fried garlic chips.[105]

In Mali, gunpowder tea is served in assortment of three, initiating with the absolute best oxidisation or strongest, unsweetened tea, domestically most regularly known as “sturdy delight in death”, followed by a second serving, the put the same tea leaves are boiled again with some sugar added (“stress-free as existence”), and a third one, the put the same tea leaves are boiled for the third time with but more sugar added (“candy as delight in”). Green tea is the central ingredient of a distinctly Malian custom, the “Grin”, an informal earn together that cuts across social and financial traces, initiating in front of family compound gates in the afternoons and extending leisurely into the night, and is extensively standard in Bamako and different gargantuan urban areas.[citation needed]

Within the United States, 80% of tea is consumed as iced tea.[106]Sweet tea is native to the southeastern US, and is iconic in its cuisine.[107]


Tea manufacturing – 2016
Country Tonnes
 China 2.4M
 India 1.3M
 Kenya 500okay
 Sri Lanka 300okay
 Turkey 200okay
World 5.95M
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Worldwide locations[108]

In 2016, world manufacturing of tea became as soon as about 6 million tonnes, led by China with 40% and India with 22% of the sector total (table). Kenya, Sri Lanka, and Turkey grasp been different valuable producers.[108]

The tea fields in the foothills of Gorreana, Azores Islands, Portugal: the completely European roar different than Georgia to augment green tea manufacturing.


Tea manufacturing facility in Taiwan

Tea is presumably the most smartly-preferred manufactured drink consumed on this planet, equaling all others – along with espresso, chocolate, tender drinks, and alcohol – mixed.[4] Most tea consumed outside East Asia is produced on gargantuan plantations in the hilly regions of India and Sri Lanka, and is destined to be sold to gargantuan corporations. Opposite this gargantuan-scale industrial manufacturing are many small “gardens,” generally minuscule plantations, that form extremely sought-after teas prized by gourmets. These teas are both rare and pricey, and may possibly well very nicely be in comparison with just a few of presumably the most costly wines on this appreciate.

India is the sector’s biggest tea-ingesting nation,[109] even supposing the per capita consumption of tea stays a modest 750 grams (26 oz) per particular person yearly. Turkey, with 2.5 kilograms (5.5 lb) of tea consumed per particular person per one year, is the sector’s most attention-grabbing per capita particular person.[110]

Labor and particular person security issues

A pair of newest[when?] experiences grasp discovered that most Chinese language and Indian teas grasp residues of banned toxic pesticides.[111][112][113][114]

Tea manufacturing in Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda has been reported to establish use of slight one labor in response to the U.S. Department of Labor‘s Checklist of Goods Produced by Youngster Labor or Forced Labor[115] (a story on the worst forms of slight one labor).


Employees who grab and pack tea on plantations in rising countries can face harsh working stipulations and may possibly well earn below the living wage.[116]

A range of our bodies independently certify the manufacturing of tea. Tea from certified estates may possibly well very nicely be sold with a certification mark on the pack. A very worthy certification schemes are Rainforest Alliance, Fairtrade, UTZ Licensed, and Organic,[citation needed] which also certify different vegetation a lot like espresso, cocoa and fruit. Rainforest Alliance certified tea is sold by Unilever manufacturers Lipton and PG Guidelines in Western Europe, Australia and the US. Fairtrade certified tea is sold by a gargantuan selection of suppliers across the sector. UTZ Licensed introduced a partnership in 2008 with Sara Lee label Pickwick tea.

Manufacturing of natural tea has risen since its introduction in 1990 at Rembeng, Kondoli Tea Property, Assam.[117] 6,000 many of natural tea grasp been sold in 1999.[118] About 75% of natural tea manufacturing is sold in France, Germany, Japan, the UK, and the United States.[citation needed]


In 2013, China – the sector’s biggest producer of tea – exported 325,806 tonnes, or 14% of their total slash.[119] India exported 254,841 tonnes or 20% of their total manufacturing.[119]

In 2013, the biggest importer of tea became as soon as the Russian Federation with 173,070 tonnes, followed by the United Kingdom, the United States, and Pakistan.[119]


Tea baggage

Tea baggage

In 1907, American tea merchant Thomas Sullivan started distributing samples of his tea in small baggage of Chinese language silk with a drawstring. Patrons seen they may possibly well simply hasten away the tea in the rep and reuse it with unusual tea. On the opposite hand, the functionality of this distribution and packaging technique would no longer be fully realised till afterward. Throughout World Battle II, tea became as soon as rationed in the UK. In 1953, after rationing in the UK ended, Tetley launched the tea rep to the UK and it became as soon as an instantaneous success.

The “pyramid tea rep” (or sachet), introduced by Lipton[120] and PG Guidelines/Scottish Mix in 1996,[121] makes an strive to deal with one amongst the connoisseurs’ arguments against paper tea baggage by technique of its 3-dimensional tetrahedron shape, which permits more space for tea leaves to establish bigger whereas steeping.[citation needed] On the opposite hand, some forms of pyramid tea baggage grasp been criticised as being environmentally circulation, since their synthetic area cloth is rarely any longer as biodegradable as free tea leaves and paper tea baggage.[122]

Free tea

A blend of free-leaf unlit teas

The tea leaves are packaged loosely in a canister, paper rep, or different container a lot like a tea chest. Some entire teas, a lot like rolled gunpowder tea leaves, which face up to crumbling, are generally vacuum-packed for freshness in aluminised packaging for storage and retail. The free tea desires to be individually measured to be used, bearing in strategies flexibility and flavour administration on the expense of convenience. Strainers, tea balls, tea presses, filtered teapots, and infusion baggage conclude free leaves from floating in the tea and over-brewing. A former technique uses a three-portion lidded teacup known as a gaiwan, the lid of which is tilted to decant the tea into a different cup for consumption.

Compressed tea

Compressed tea (a lot like pu-erh) is produced for convenience in transport, storage, and ageing. It’ll usually be saved longer with out spoilage than free leaf tea.

Compressed tea is ready by loosening leaves from the cake the use of a small knife, and steeping the extracted pieces in water. Throughout the Tang dynasty, as described by Lu Yu, compressed tea became as soon as ground into a powder, mixed with hot water, and ladled into bowls, ensuing in a “frothy” mixture.[123] Within the Song dynasty, the tea powder would as a substitute be whisked with hot water in the bowl. Even supposing no longer practiced in China as of late, the whisking technique of getting ready powdered tea became as soon as transmitted to Japan by Zen Buddhist monks, and is restful inclined to arrange matcha in the Eastern tea ceremony.[124]

Compressed tea became as soon as presumably the most smartly-preferred make of tea in China at some level of the Tang dynasty.[125] By the muse of the Ming dynasty, it had been displaced by free-leaf tea.[126] It stays standard, nevertheless, in the Himalayan countries and Mongolian steppes. In Mongolia, tea bricks grasp been ubiquitous satisfactory to be susceptible as a make of currency. Among Himalayan peoples, compressed tea is consumed by combining it with yak butter and salt to form butter tea.[127]

Instantaneous tea

“Instantaneous tea”, a lot like freeze-dried instantaneous espresso and a substitute for brewed tea, may possibly well very nicely be consumed either hot or chilly. Instantaneous tea became as soon as developed in the 1930s, with Nestlé introducing the first commercial product in 1946, whereas Redi-Tea debuted instantaneous iced tea in 1953.

Delicacy of flavour is sacrificed for convenience. Additives a lot like chai, vanilla, honey or fruit, are standard, as is powdered milk.

Throughout the 2d World Battle British and Canadian troopers grasp been issued an instantaneous tea known as “Compo” in their Composite Ration Packs. These blocks of instantaneous tea, powdered milk, and sugar weren’t repeatedly nicely received. As Royal Canadian Artillery Gunner, George C Blackburn noticed:

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But, certainly, the characteristic of Compo rations destined to be remembered previous all others is Compo tea…Directions reveal to “sprinkle powder on heated water and raise to the boil, stirring nicely, three heaped teaspoons to 1 pint of water.”

Each seemingly variation in the preparation of this tea became as soon as tried, nevertheless…it repeatedly ended up the same technique. While restful too hot to drink, it’s far an correct-attempting cup of sturdy tea. Even when it turns into steady chilly satisfactory to be sipped gingerly, it’s far restful an correct-tasting cup of tea, while you delight in your tea sturdy and candy. But let it chilly satisfactory to be quaffed and loved, and your lips will doubtless be coated with a sticky scum that kinds across the outside, which if left undisturbed will develop into a leathery membrane that will possibly well very nicely be ruin round your finger and flipped away…[128]

Bottled and canned tea

Canned tea is sold ready and prepared to drink. It became as soon as introduced in 1981 in Japan.

The first bottled tea introduced by Indonesian tea firm PT. Sinar Sosro in 1969 with label title Teh Botol Sosro (or Sosro bottled tea).[129]

In 1983, Swiss-essentially based Bischofszell Food Ltd., became as soon as the first firm to bottle iced tea on an industrial scale.[130]


Storage stipulations and form identify the shelf existence of tea. Unlit tea’s is bigger than green’s. Some, a lot like flower teas, may possibly well closing completely a month or so. Others, a lot like pu-erh, make stronger with age.

To dwell unusual and prevent mold, tea desires to be saved far from heat, light, air, and moisture. Tea desires to be saved at room temperature in an air-tight container. Unlit tea in a rep within a sealed opaque canister may possibly well preserve for two years. Green tea deteriorates more suddenly, usually in much less than a one year. Tightly rolled gunpowder tea leaves preserve longer than the more originate-leafed Chun Mee tea.

Storage existence for all teas may possibly well very nicely be prolonged by the use of desiccant or oxygen-absorbing packets, vacuum sealing, or refrigeration in air-tight containers (except green tea, the put discrete use of refrigeration or freezing is immediate and temperature variation saved to a minimal).[131]


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